Many countries in Europe have failed to repair cuts made to higher education since the 2008 financial crisis, despite experiencing economic recovery. Ireland, Italy and Spain are at lower levels than 2008.
Higher education institutions in England have predicted their income from international student fees will hit £4.8bn by 2018/19, a third more than in 2014/15, according to HEFCE. However, the funding body has warned the increase may be based on optimistic forecasting of international student growth.
There has been a drop in demand for English higher education among international students for the first time since 1985, research has confirmed. The number of full-time EU undergraduate entrants fell by nearly a quarter in 2012-13, while Indian and Pakistani enrolments have halved since 2010.